Grade 12

Crosswalk Analysis

NAAEE
Guidelines

End of
Grade 12

NH Science
Curriculum Frameworks

End of
Grade 12

NH Social
Studies Curriculum Frameworks-End of Grade 12

Strand 1-
Questioning, Analysis and Interpretation Skills

 

 

A) Questioning—Learners
are able to develop, modify, clarify, and explain questions that guide
environmental investigations of various types. They understand factors that
influence the questions they pose.

·
Articulate
environmental phenomena or topics to be studied at scales ranging from local
to global.

·
Pose
a research question and hypothesis, identifying and defining key variables.
For example, develop hypotheses about land use in a region by drawing on
maps, newspaper articles, databases, and personal observations.

·
Identify
historical and current ideas and beliefs—for example, about the environment,
human perceptions of the environment, or the nature of knowledge—that inform
their questions.

SPS1:11:1 Making Observations
and Asking Questions

 

SPS1:11:2 Designing Scientific
Investigations

 

SPS3:11:2 Common Environmental
Issues, Natural Resources Management and Conservation

 

SPS4:12:3 Critical Thinking
and Systems Thinking

 

SPS4:12:4 Problem
Identification, Formulation and Solution

Skill 2.2 Organizing and
Communicating Information

 

Skill 2.3:J Students will develop personal
skills.

B) Designing
investigations—
Learners know how to design
investigations to answer particular questions about the environment. They are
able to develop approaches for investigating unfamiliar types of problems and
phenomena.

·
Select
appropriate means of inquiry, including scientific investigations, historical
inquiry, and social science observation and research.

·
Select
and develop appropriate problem solving strategies for conducting
environmental investigations.

·
Incorporate
a wide range of tools and technologies as appropriate, including complex
maps, measurement instruments and processes, and computer-based analysis.

SPS1:11:2 Designing Scientific
Investigations

 

SPS1:11:3 Conducting
Scientific Investigations

 

SPS3:11:2 Common Environmental
Issues, Natural Resources Management and Conservation

 

SPS4:12:3 Critical Thinking
and Systems Thinking

 

SPS4:12:4 Problem
Identification, Formulation and Solution

Skill 2.1😀 Students will be able to carry
out a variety of information-gathering techniques.

C) Collecting information—Learners
are able to locate and collect reliable information for environmental
investigations of many types. They know how to use sophisticated technology
to collect information, including computer programs that access, gather,
store, and display data.

·
Use
basic sampling techniques such as spatial sampling and random sampling.
Evaluate when these techniques are appropriate.

·
Apply
data collection skills in field situations, such as interviewing community
members about environmental concerns or sampling water in a local stream.

·
Gather
information from a variety of sources including historical sites, censuses,
tax records, statistical compilations, economic indicators, interviews or
surveys, geographical information systems, and other data banks.

·
Adjust
information collection strategies to compensate for potential bias in
information sources.

·
Perform
basic statistical analyses to describe data using quantitative measures such
as mean, median and mode.

SPS1:12:2 Designing Scientific
Investigations

 

SPS1:12:3 Conducting
Scientific Investigations

 

SPS1:12:4 Representing and
Understanding Results of Investigations

 

SPS3:11:2 Common Environmental
Issues, Natural Resources Management and Conservation

Skill 2.1 Acquiring
Information

 

Skill 2.2 Organizing and
Communicating Information

D) Evaluating accuracy and reliability—Learners
can apply basic logic and reasoning skills to evaluate completeness and
reliability in a variety of information sources.

·
Identify
logical errors and spurious statements in everyday situations such as
political speeches about the environment or commercial advertising.

·
Look
for and explain flaws such as faulty or misleading use of statistics,
misrepresentation of data that is presented graphically, or biased selection
of data to support a claim. For example, analyze the public debate over an
environmental issue. Examine speeches, advertisements, news releases, and
pamphlets put out by groups on various sides of the issue.

·
Explain
why some research results are judged to be more credible than are others.
Consider factors such as possible sources of bias in interpretation, funding
sources, and research procedures.

SPS1:12:4 Representing and
Understanding Results of Investigations

 

SPS1:12:5 Evaluating
Scientific Explanations

 

SPS3:11:2 Common Environmental
Issues, Natural Resources Management and Conservation

Skill 2.2:G Students will be able to
interpret information.

E) Organizing information—Learners
are able to organize and display information in ways appropriate to different
types of environmental investigations and purposes.

·
Attend
to details such as the type and accuracy of data, scale, accuracy of
representation, and ease of interpretation.

·
Evaluate
the strengths and weaknesses of the particular means of presentation for
different purposes.

·
Work
with technology designed to relate and display data, such as database and
mapping software.

·
Integrate
and summarize information using a variety of media ranging from written texts
to graphic representations, and from audiovisual materials to maps and
computer-generated images.

SPS4:12:2 Communication Skills

 

SPS4:12:5 Creativity and
Intellectual Curiosity

Skill 2.2 Organizing and
Communicating Information

F) Working with models and simulations—Learners
are able to create, use, and evaluate models to understand environmental
phenomena.

·
Use
algebraic and geometric models to represent processes or objects such as
movement along earthquake fault lines, traffic flows, or population growth.

·
Use
computers to create models and simulations. For example, project the effects
of habitat fragmentation on species diversity, the air-quality effects of a
new factory, the economic impacts of proposed water quality rules, or the
visual changes a new housing development will make on the landscape.

·
Compare
the applicability of models for particular situations, considering the
models’ assumptions as one factor. Explain how a single model may apply to
more than one situation and how many models may represent a single situation.

·
Evaluate
and report the limitations of models used.

SPS3:11:2 Common Environmental
Issues, Natural Resources Management and Conservation

 

SPS4:12:3 Critical Thinking
and Systems Thinking

 

SPS4:12:5 Creativity and
Intellectual Curiosity

SS:GE:1: The World in Spatial Terms

Students will demonstrate the ability to use maps, mental maps,
globes and other graphic tools and technologies to acquire, process, report
and analyze geographic information.

G) Drawing conclusions and developing
explanations—
Learners are able to use evidence and
logic in developing proposed explanations that address their initial
questions and hypotheses.

·
Use
basic statistical analysis and measures of probability to make predictions
and develop interpretations based on data.

·
Differentiate
between causes and effects and identify when causality is uncertain.

·
Speak
in general terms about their confidence in proposed explanations as well as
possible sources of uncertainty and error. Distinguish between error and unanticipated
results in formulating explanations. Consider the assumptions of models and
measuring techniques or devices as possible sources of error.

·
Identify
what would be needed to reject the proposed explanation or hypothesis.

·
Based
on experience, develop new questions to ground further inquiry. For example,
draw on the results of a stream-monitoring project to develop questions that
guide an investigation into water quality issues in the community or the
watershed.

SPS1:11:5 Evaluating
Scientific Explanations

 

SPS3:11:2 Common Environmental
Issues, Natural Resources Management and Conservation

 

SPS4:12:1 Information and
Media Literacy

Skill 2.2 Organizing and
Communicating Information

NAAEE
Guidelines

End of
Grade 12

NH Science
Curriculum Frameworks

End of
Grade 12

NH Social
Studies Curriculum Frameworks-End of Grade 12

Strand 2- Knowledge of Environmental
Processes and Systems

 

 

Strand 2.1–The Earth as a
Physical System

 

 

A) Processes that shape
the Earth—
Learners understand the major physical
processes that shape the Earth. They can relate these processes, especially
those that are large- scale and long-term, to characteristics of the Earth.

·
Relate
different types of climate to processes such as the transfer of heat energy,
wind and ocean currents, and the cycling of water.

·
Use
examples such as the El Niño effect or the Santa Ana winds to illustrate how
changes in wind patterns or ocean temperatures can affect weather in
different parts of the world.

·
Explain
distinctive landforms in terms of the physical processes (particularly those
related to changes in the Earth’s crust or long-term processes such as
erosion) that shaped them.

·
Describe
possible relationships between surface water and ground water. For example,
create a model or a cross-sectional drawing that shows surface- and
groundwater flows in a local drainage. Explain why surface and ground water
are related in these ways.

SPS2:11:5 Form and Function

 

ESS1:11:1 Atmosphere, Climate and
Weather

 

ESS1:11:2 Composition and
Features

 

ESS1:11:5 Processes and Rates of
Change

SS:GE:2 Places and Regions

Students will demonstrate an understanding of the physical and human
geographic features that define places and regions as well as how culture and
experience influence people’s perceptions of places and regions.

 

SS:GE:3: Physical Systems

Students will demonstrate an understanding of the physical processes
that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface and the characteristics and
spatial distribution of ecosystems.

B) Changes in matter—Learners
apply their understanding of chemical reactions to round out their
explanations of environmental characteristics and everyday phenomena.

·
Explain
everyday chemical reactions such as burning fossil fuels, photosynthesis, or
the creation of smog in terms such as the release or consumption of energy,
the products of these reactions, and how these products may be involved in
further chemical reactions and/or affect biogeochemical cycles.

·
Explain
the chemical components of biological processes such as photosynthesis, respiration,
nitrogen fixation, or decomposition, and how biological and physical
processes fit in the overall process of biogeochemical cycling.

·
Explain
why elements cycle through the biosphere at different rates, describing
influences on reaction rates. (Oxygen and nitrogen cycle quickly, for
example, while phosphorus tends to be released from its immobile form more
slowly, depending upon factors such as soil acidity.)

ESS1:11:2 Composition and
Features

 

ESS4:11:3 Local and Global
Environmental Issues

 

LS1:11:2 Living Things and
Organization

 

LS2:11:3 Recycling of
Materials

None at this level.

C) Energy—Learners
apply their knowledge of energy and matter to understand phenomena in the
world around them.

·
Compare
different means of generating electricity (such as coal-burning plants,
nuclear fusion reactors, wind, geothermal, and hydropower) in terms of the
transformation of energy among forms, the relationship of matter and energy,
and efficiency/production of heat energy.

·
Explain
differences in conductivity among materials and relate these ideas to
real-world phenomena.

·
Compare
the efficiency of various types of motors or heating systems.

·
Use
the laws of thermodynamics to explain why natural systems need a certain
amount of energy input to maintain their organization.

ESS4:11:3 Local and Global
Environmental Issues

 

LS2:11:1 Environment

 

PS2:11:2 Conservation

 

PS2:11:3 Energy

 

PS4:12:3 Social Issues (Local
and Global; Energy, Power and Transportation; Manufacturing

SS:GE:5: Environment and Society

Students will demonstrate an understanding of the connections and
consequences of the interactions between Earth’s physical and human systems.

Strand 2.2- The Living Environment

 

 

A) Organisms, populations, and
communities
Learners understand basic population
dynamics and the importance of diversity in living systems.

·
Discuss
the relationship of habitat changes to plant and animal populations. Consider
such factors as variations in habitat size, fragmentation, and fluctuation in
conditions such as pH, oxygen, available light, or water level. For example,
describe the effects of a lake’s eutrophication on plant, insect, bacteria,
and fish populations.

·
Discuss
some of the ways in which populations can change over time, using ideas such
as cyclic fluctuations, equilibrium, and coupled oscillations. Evaluate
influences on population growth rate, including reproductive strategies and
resource limitations.

·
Explain
how diversity of characteristics among organisms of a species increases the
likelihood of the species surviving changing environmental conditions.

·
Explain
how variation among species in a system increases the likelihood that at
least some species will survive changes in environmental conditions.

SPS2:11:4 Patterns of Change

 

LS2:11:1 Environment

 

LS3:11:2 Evidence of Evolution

 

LS3:11:3 Natural Selection

None at this level.

B) Heredity and evolution—Learners
understand the basic ideas and genetic mechanisms behind biological
evolution.

·
Describe
the mechanisms of natural selection, incorporating factors such as genetic
variation, the effect of inherited characteristics on individual survival and
reproduction within a given environment, and the effects of environmental
change.

·
Use
the theory of natural selection and concepts such as mutation, gene flow, and
genetic drift to account for the adaptation of species to specific
environments.

·
Explain
the idea that the more biological diversity there is today, the more there
may be in the future. Offer examples of exceptions to this general rule, and
use it to help explain past mass extinctions.

LS3:11:2 Evidence of Evolution

 

LS3:11:3 Natural Selection

None at this level.

C) Systems and
connections—
Learners understand the living
environment to be comprised of interrelated, dynamic systems.

·
Apply
the concepts of ecosystem and eco-region to organize the multitude of
relationships among organisms and environments encountered in earlier studies.
Discuss the interactions among organisms and their environments. Explain
ecosystem change with respect to variables such as climate change, the
introduction of new species, and human impacts; and explain processes such as
desertification and soil formation as mechanisms for such change.

·
Describe
succession in ecosystems and their constituent plant and animal communities.
Illustrate this idea with examples such as the slow transformation of a
volcanic island from barren rock to rain forest as initial plant colonizers
create conditions favorable to other species, or the more rapid changes that
occur after beavers dam a stream.

·
Describe
how adding a species to, or removing one from, an
ecosystem may affect other organisms and the entire system.

SPS2:11:4 Patterns of Change

 

LS2:11:1 Environment

 

LS2:11:2 Flow of Energy and
Recycling of Materials

SS:GE:2 Places and Regions

Students will demonstrate an understanding of the physical and human
geographic features that define places and regions as well as how culture and
experience influence people’s perceptions of places and regions.

D) Flow of matter and
energy—
Learners are able to account for
environmental characteristics based on their knowledge of how matter and
energy interact in living systems.

·
Illustrate
how energy for life is provided primarily by continual inputs from the sun,
captured by plants through photosynthesis and converted into carbon-based
molecules. Describe exceptions such as geothermal and natural nuclear energy.

·
Trace
the flow of matter and energy through living systems, and between living
systems and the physical environment. For example, show how oxygen is
released to the atmosphere by the interaction of plants, animals, and
non-living matter in the carbon cycle. Or use the carbon cycle to explain the
existence of fossil energy sources.

·
Explain
how the abundance and distribution of living organisms are limited by the
available energy and certain forms of matter such as water, oxygen, and
minerals.

ESS2:11:2 Energy

 

ESS4:11:3 Local and Global
Environmental Issues

 

LS1:11:2 Living Things and
Organization

 

LS2:11:1 Environment

 

LS2:11:2 Flow of Energy and
Recycling of Materials

 

LS2:11:3 Recycling of
Materials

None at this level.

Strand 2.3–Humans and
Their Societies

 

 

A) Individuals and groups—Learners
understand the influence of individual and group actions on the environment,
and how groups can work to promote and balance interests.

·
Predict
how the environmental effects of their personal actions might change over
time. Consider variables such as technological advances, lifestyle changes,
or taking on such roles as business owners, employees in various careers, or
parents.

·
Analyze
how the actions of societal organizations such as businesses or community
groups may have environmental consequences and other impacts that go beyond
the intended aims of the group.

·
Describe
how particular groups meet or balance individual needs, group goals, and the
common societal good. Use examples such as conservation organizations,
organizations of professionals in environmental or resource management
fields, community associations, or business groups.

SPS3:11:2 Common Environmental
Issues, Natural Resources Management and Conservation

 

SPS3:11:3 Science and
Technology, Technological Design and Application

 

ESS4:11:3 Local and Global
Environmental Issues

 

LS5:11:3 Social Issues (Local
and Global); Medical Technology; Biotechnology

Skill 2.3 Real World
Applications of Social Studies Skills

 

SS:HI:4: Economic Systems &
Technology

Students will demonstrate an understanding of the changing forms of
production, distribution and consumption of goods and services over time.

 

SS:WH:5: Social/Cultural

Students will demonstrate their understanding of the diversity of
values, beliefs and practices of individuals and groups over time.

B) Culture—Learners
understand cultural perspectives and dynamics and apply their understanding
in context.

·
Analyze
how cultural change and altered views of the environment are related. For
example, discuss how the shift away from a largely rural society to a
predominantly urban one may influence changing perceptions of the
environment.

·
Recognize
diverse cultural views about humans and the environment. Anticipate ways in
which people from different cultural perspectives and frames of reference
might interpret data, events, or policy proposals.

·
Describe
and compare historical and contemporary societal strategies for adapting to
environmental or social change while preserving and transmitting culture. For
example, describe ways resource dependent communities (those whose economies
traditionally relied on activities such as mining or timber harvest) work to
maintain their identities in the face of mine closures or declining timber
harvests.

None at this level.

SS:GE:4: Human Systems

Students will demonstrate an understanding of human migration; the
complexity of cultural mosaics; economic interdependence; human settlement
patterns; and the forces of cooperation and conflict among peoples.

 

SS:WH:5: Social/Cultural

Students will demonstrate their understanding of the diversity of
values, beliefs and practices of individuals and groups over time.

C) Political and economic
systems—
Learners understand how different
political and economic systems account for, manage, and affect natural
resources and environmental quality.

·
Explain
the development of economic systems using the economic idea of scarcity and
the geographic idea of uneven distribution of resources.

·
Compare
the U.S. political and economic systems with other types of systems, focusing
on how the systems govern the use of natural resources, control production
and consumption, and protect environmental quality.

·
Evaluate
the environmental and societal costs and benefits of allocating goods and
services in different ways (e.g. through public or private sectors). For
example, explain problems such as over-fishing, overgrazing, and
deforestation considering what can happen to resources that are commonly
owned and openly accessible. Or examine successful common property management
systems that promote sustainable use of resources.

·
Explain
current and historical environmental issues in terms of political and
economic ideas. For example, analyze the role of private property rights and
the concept of general welfare in shaping decisions about the use and
protection of wetlands in the United States.

·
Evaluate
the structure and functions of the United Nations and its agencies in
addressing global environmental issues.

ESS1:11:7 Water

SS:EC:2: Basic Economic Concepts

Students will learn about the pillars of a free market economy and
the market mechanism.

 

SS:GE:5: Environment and Society

Students will demonstrate an understanding of the connections and
consequences of the interactions between Earth’s physical and human systems.

 

SS:HI:2: Contacts, Exchanges &
International Relations

Students will demonstrate an understanding of the events, actions and
policies of our nation in relation to other peoples and governments over
time.

 

SS:HI:4: Economic Systems &
Technology

Students will demonstrate an understanding of the changing forms of
production, distribution and consumption of goods and services over time.

 

SS:WH:2: Contacts, Exchanges &
International Relations

Students will demonstrate their understanding of the interactions of
peoples and governments over time.

 

SS:WH:4: Economic Systems &
Technology

Students will demonstrate their understanding of the changing forms
of production, distribution and consumption of goods and services over time.

D) Global connections—Learners
are able to analyze global social, cultural, political, economic, and
environmental linkages.

·
Explain
regional and national economic specialization and international trade in
terms of uneven distribution of resources and differing costs of producing
similar goods (due to factors such as climate, labor costs, and energy
costs).

·
Describe
global connections in systems such as the economy, transportation, and communication.
Evaluate the effects of changes in these systems on communities and the
environment on a global scale. Consider instances in which global linkages
are strong, and in which they are relatively weak.

·
Evaluate
the connections among interests, decisions, and actions taken at the
individual, community, regional, national, and global levels. Consider their
effect on global issues such as human rights, economic development, health,
resource allocation, and environmental quality. For example, examine the
influence of factors such as consumer preferences, U.S. foreign policy,
international treaties and governing bodies, international nongovernmental
organizations, and corporate operations on agricultural practices in
developing nations.

ESS4:11:3 Local and Global
Environmental Issues

 

LS4:11:3 Human Identity

SS:CV:3: The World and the United
States’ Place In It

Students will demonstrate an understanding of the relationship of the
United States to other countries, and the role of the United States in world
affairs.

 

SS:EC:5: International Economics and
Trade

Students will recognize the importance of international trade and how
economies are affected by it.

 

SS:WH:2: Contacts, Exchanges &
International Relations

Students will demonstrate their understanding of the interactions of
peoples and governments over time.

 

SS:WH:4: Economic Systems &
Technology

Students will demonstrate their understanding of the changing forms
of production, distribution and consumption of goods and services over time.

E) Change and
conflict—
Learners understand the functioning of
public processes for promoting and managing change and conflict, and can
analyze their effects on the environment.

·
Explain
how public decision-making about the environment takes into account (or fails
to account for) uneven distribution of, or different types of, costs and
benefits; future or distant consequences; and difficulties assessing the
value of certain costs or benefits such as ecosystem services or clean air.

·
Evaluate
the role of social, political, and economic institutions in the United States
in managing change and conflict regarding environmental issues. Account for
the influence of institutions such as the legal system and property rights as
well as organizations such as banks, nonprofit groups, corporations, and
special interest groups.

·
Evaluate
the conditions and motivations that lead to conflict, cooperation, and change
among individuals, groups, and nations. Look particularly at the effects of
these forces on the control of natural resources. For example, examine the
origins and effects of international treaties and accords on whaling or
commercial fishing.

·
Evaluate
various governmental and non-governmental strategies for promoting social
change. For example, trace the strategies used by different groups to reduce
energy use in the U.S.

LS3:11:1 Change

Theme A: Conflict and Cooperation

 

SS:HI:2: Contacts, Exchanges &
International Relations

Students will demonstrate an understanding of the events, actions and
policies of our nation in relation to other peoples and governments over
time.

 

SS:HI:3: World Views and Value Systems
and Their Intellectual and Artistic Expressions

Students will demonstrate an understanding of conceptions of reality,
ideas, guidelines of behavior and forms of expression.

Strand 2.4–Environment and Society

 

 

A) Human/environment interactions—Learners
understand that humans are able to alter the physical environment to meet
their needs and that there are limits to the ability of the environment to
absorb impacts or meet human needs.

·
Evaluate
ways in which technology has changed humans’ ability to alter the environment
and its capacity to support humans and other living organisms. Consider
technologies that have had impacts learners see as positive, as well as
negative.

·
Analyze
specific examples of environmental change in terms of qualitative and
quantitative costs and benefits for different groups of people and specific
species or ecosystems.

·
Describe
factors that limit the physical environment’s capacity to support particular
types of human activity such as suburban development, flood control, or
particular agricultural practices.

·
Evaluate
the cumulative effects of human actions on a specific species or
environmental system, such as a stream or a watershed.

·
Use
the concepts of carrying capacity and ecological footprint to analyze the
sustainability of current trends in world population growth and natural
resource consumption.

SPS3:11:3 Science and
Technology, Technological Design and Application

 

LS2:11:1 Environment

 

LS3:11:1 Change

 

LS4:11:2 Disease

 

LS4:11:3 Human Identity

 

LS5:11:3 Social Issues (Local
and Global); Medical Technology; Biotechnology

 

PS4:11:2 Tools

SS:GE:5: Environment and Society

Students will demonstrate an understanding of the connections and consequences
of the interactions between Earth’s physical and human systems.

 

SS:HI:4: Economic Systems &
Technology

Students will demonstrate an understanding of the changing forms of
production, distribution and consumption of goods and services over time.

B) Places—Learners
understand “place” as humans endowing a particular part of the
Earth with meaning through their interactions with that environment.

·
Analyze
how places change over time as the physical environment changes and as human
use and perceptions change. For example, examine the effects of automobiles
and the interstate highway system on different places.

·
Explain
the importance of places to human identity. For example, discuss changes in
land use and personal and community identity that occur in a rapidly growing
town or city, or one in which the economy has stagnated.

·
Describe
how regions change over time, examining factors such as human migration and
population change, technological change, environmental degradation, and
seismic activity. For example, trace the causes of the desiccation of the
Aral Sea and the changes it has prompted in that region of Russia.

SPS3:11:3 Science and
Technology, Technological Design and Application

 

ESS1:11:2 Composition and
Features

 

PS4:12:3 Social Issues (Local and
Global); Energy, Power and Transportation; Manufacturing

SS:GE:2 Places and Regions

Students will demonstrate an understanding of the physical and human
geographic features that define places and regions as well as how culture and
experience influence people’s perceptions of places and regions.

C) Resources—Learners
understand that the importance and use of resources change over time and vary
under different economic and technological systems.

·
Explain
differences in the consumption of resources among nations using factors such
as population size, cultural practices, and varied geographic or economic distribution
of resources.

·
Describe
how changes in technology alter the use of resources. Illustrate with
examples such as the ability to harvest timber on steep slopes using
helicopters or building technologies that incorporate nontraditional or
recycled materials.

·
Evaluate
public policies related to resource use. Consider variables such as their
impacts on the resource and short- and long-term economic effects. For
example, anticipate the relationship between water use and the growth of a
city like Las Vegas, Nevada, which is in a desert area that receives only
four inches of rainfall per year.

·
Identify
ways in which various resources can be recycled and reused. Evaluate the
viability of recycling based on economic and technological factors, spatial
variables such as distance from recycling facility to markets, and possible
future developments. For example, discuss factors that influenced the
development of the steel or plastics recycling industry in the United States.

ESS1:11:7 Water

 

ESS4:11:3 Local and Global
Environmental Issues

 

LS5:11:1 Design Technology

 

LS5:11:3 Social Issues (Local
and Global); Medical Technology; Biotechnology

SS:EC:2: Basic Economic Concepts

Students will learn about the pillars of a free market economy and
the market mechanism.

 

SS:GE:5: Environment and Society

Students will demonstrate an understanding of the connections and
consequences of the interactions between Earth’s physical and human systems.

D) Technology—Learners
are able to examine the social and environmental impacts of various
technologies and technological systems.

·
Explain
how social and economic forces influence the direction of technological
development, and how technologies shape societal values and beliefs. For
example, consider the ability to build large dams for water storage or
hydropower, or the social impact of the first photos of the Earth from space.

·
Using
examples of particular technologies (such as genetic manipulation or cyanide
heap leach gold mining) or technological systems (such as modern agriculture
or energy production and use), discuss the social and environmental costs,
benefits, risks, and possibilities associated with technologies through which
humans shape and control their environment.

·
Discuss
ways in which technological advances have lessened the adverse environmental
impacts of human activities.

ESS4:12:1 Design Technology

 

ESS4:11:3 Local and Global
Environmental Issues

 

LS3:11:1 Change

 

LS5:11:3 Social Issues (Local
and Global); Medical Technology; Biotechnology

SS:HI:4: Economic Systems &
Technology

Students will demonstrate an understanding of the changing forms of
production, distribution and consumption of goods and services over time.

E) Environmental issues—Learners
are familiar with a range of environmental issues at scales that range from
local to national to global. They understand that these scales and issues are
often linked.

·
Evaluate
a range of costs and benefits of particular policies that affect the
environment. For example, consider the effects of free trade agreements on
the ability of signatory nations to protect the environment, or examine the
effects of programs for trading “pollution credits” among companies.

·
Place
local issues in the context of broader or larger scale issues, drawing
parallels, and noting important similarities and differences. Use the broader
issue to point to important local dynamics or perspectives of which to be
aware. For example, consider local air pollution problems in the context of
larger issues such as global climate change or acid precipitation in other
parts of the country.

·
Identify
links among issues, for example the relationships among traffic congestion,
poor air quality, and suburban sprawl. Explain key relationships among
technological, social, ecological, economic, and other aspects of issues.

SPS3:11:2 Common Environmental
Issues, Natural Resources Management and Conservation

 

SPS3:11:3 Science and
Technology, Technological Design and Application

 

ESS1:11:7 Water

 

ESS4:11:3 Local and Global
Environmental Issues

 

LS3:11:1 Change

SS:GE:3: Physical Systems

Students will demonstrate an understanding of the physical processes
that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface and the characteristics and
spatial distribution of ecosystems.

 

SS:WH:5: Social/Cultural

Students will demonstrate their understanding of the diversity of
values, beliefs and practices of individuals and groups over time.

NAAEE
Guidelines

End of
Grade 12

NH Science
Curriculum Frameworks

End of
Grade 12

NH Social
Studies Curriculum Frameworks-End of Grade 12

Strand 3– Skills for
Understanding and Addressing Environmental Issues

 

 

Strand 3.1–Skills for Analyzing and Investigating Environmental
Issues

 

 

A) Identifying and
investigating issues—
Learners apply their research and
analytical skills to investigate environmental issues ranging from local
issues to those that are regional or global in scope.

·
Define
and clearly articulate issues to be investigated. Characterize the issue
considering factors such as connections with other issues, the pervasiveness
of its effects, whether it is a long-term issue or one that is motivated by a
sudden change or crisis, and whether it is unique to a particular area.

·
Identify
key individuals and groups involved. Identify different perspectives on the
issue and approaches to resolving it. Discuss assumptions and goals that
underlie each position.

·
Examine
contextual elements that shape the issue and alternative courses of action.
Use these to identify relevant historical antecedents or contemporary
parallels to the selected issue. For example, in studying questions
surrounding the preservation of natural areas in Central America, students
may look for similar issues in other developing nations, regions where people
maintain traditional or subsistence uses of the land, or areas with similar
governmental regimes.

·
Investigate
the issue as well as similar issues and proposals using secondary sources of
information.

·
Where
needed, conduct original research, applying research methods from the natural
and social sciences. For example, survey a community about an environmental
issue using a random sample or test soils for the presence of contaminants.

SPS1:11:1 Making Observations
and Asking Questions

 

SPS1:11:2 Designing Scientific
Investigations

 

SPS1:11:3 Conducting
Scientific Investigations

 

SPS1:11:4 Representing and
Understanding Results of Investigations

 

SPS1:11:5 Evaluating
Scientific Explanations

 

SPS2:11:1 Nature of Science

 

SPS3:11:2 Common Environmental
Issues, Natural Resources Management and Conservation

 

SPS4:12:1Information and Media Literacy

 

SPS4:12:3 Critical Thinking
and Systems Thinking

 

SPS4:11:4 Problem
Identification, Formulation and Solution

Skill 2.1 Acquiring Information

 

Skill 2.2 Organizing and
Communicating Information

B) Sorting out the consequences of
issues—
Learners are able to evaluate the
consequences of specific environmental changes, conditions, and issues for
human and ecological systems.

·
Evaluate
the consequences of an environmental issue. For example, bring to bear
historical perspectives, an understanding of the impacts of different
technological developments, and knowledge of similar issues.

·
Discuss
the social, political, economic, and ethical implications of environmental
issues. For example, trace the root causes of a community’s solid waste
problem and the effects of the problem and likely consequences of siting a
landfill in different areas for different groups of people.

·
Project
the likely consequences for specific human and environmental systems of
failure to resolve the issue.

·
Use
the idea of cumulative effects to explain why one set of environmental
changes or human actions cannot be considered in isolation from others.

SPS1:11:5 Evaluating Scientific
Explanations

 

SPS2:11:1 Nature of Science

 

SPS3:11:3 Science and
Technology, Technological Design and Application

 

ESS4:11:3 Local and Global
Environmental Issues

 

LS5:11:3 Social Issues (Local
and Global); Medical Technology; Biotechnology

Skill 2.2 Organizing and
Communicating Information

 

SS:GE:3: Physical Systems

Students will demonstrate an understanding of the physical processes
that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface and the characteristics and
spatial distribution of ecosystems.

C) Identifying and evaluating
alternative solutions and courses of action
Learners are able
to identify and propose action strategies that are likely to be effective in
particular situations and for particular purposes.

·
Synthesize
different perspectives, types of data, and means of analysis to propose
solutions to environmental issues.

·
Apply
knowledge of functional relationships, modeling, and statistical analysis to
evaluating issues and different approaches to resolving them. For example, do
basic traffic flow analyses to project the likely affects of commercial
developments at the outskirts of town and evaluate alternative solutions such
as widening roads, providing bus service, or changing the location of the
development. Predict other likely consequences of different approaches to
resolving projected traffic problems associated with the new stores.

·
Evaluate
proposed solutions using gauges such as likely impacts on society or the
environment and likely effectiveness in resolving the issue. Use methods such
as cost/benefit analysis, cumulative effects analysis, environmental impact
analysis, ethical analysis, and risk analysis. Describe the strengths and
weaknesses of each method, considering the main ideas behind each approach
including which effects are important to look at and which values or societal
goals it tries to protect.

·
Define
and provide examples of citizen action appropriate to proposed solutions.

SPS4:12:1 Information and
Media Literacy

 

SPS4:12:6 Interpersonal and
Collaborative Skills

 

 

Skill 2.2:I Students will be able to make
informed decisions.

 

SS:GE:1: The World in Spatial Terms

Students will demonstrate the ability to use maps, mental maps,
globes and other graphic tools and technologies to acquire, process, report
and analyze geographic information.

D) Working with
flexibility, creativity, and openness—
While environmental issues
investigations can bring to the surface deeply held views,
learners are able to engage each other in peer review conducted in the spirit
of open inquiry.

·
Question,
offer alternative explanations, and defend interpretations in group
discussions.

·
Understand
and explain the importance of such characteristics as honesty, openness,
skepticism, and suspending judgment in the process of building knowledge.

·
Discuss
when and how characteristics such as openness and decisiveness are valuable
in addressing environmental issues.

None at this level.

Skill 2.3:J Students will develop personal
skills.

 

Skill 2.3:K Students will develop civic
participation skills.

Strand 3.2–Decision-Making
and Citizenship Skills

 

 

A) Forming and evaluating personal
views—
Learners are able to communicate,
evaluate, and justify their own views on environmental issues and alternative
ways to address them.

·
Articulate
a position on an environmental issue. Justify the position based on an
analysis of information from a variety of sources, personal beliefs and
values, and clear reasoning.

·
Evaluate
personal beliefs and values using criteria such as personal wellbeing; social
and environmental welfare; economic vitality; and concern for other living
beings.

·
Articulate
elements of their own environmental ethic and discuss whether personal
positions on issues are consistent with this ethic.

·
Consider
viewpoints that differ from their own, and information that challenges their
position. Evaluate whether and how such information might affect their views.

SPS4:12:1 Information and
Media Literacy

 

SPS4:12:2 Communication Skills

 

SPS4:12:3 Critical Thinking
and Systems Thinking

 

SPS4:12:4 Problem
Identification, Formulation and Solution

Skill 2.3:J Students will develop personal
skills.

B) Evaluating the need for citizen
action—
Learners are able to decide whether
action is needed in particular situations and whether they should be
involved.

·
Evaluate
whether action is warranted in specific situations, accounting for factors
such as available evidence about the issue and proposed solutions; the scale
of the issue; legal, social, economic, and ecological consequences; and
alternatives to citizen action.

·
Evaluate
whether personal involvement in particular actions is warranted, considering
factors such as their own values, skills, resources, and commitment.

·
Communicate
decisions clearly, articulating well-reasoned arguments supporting their
views and decisions.

SPS4:12:2 Communication Skills

Skill 2.3:K Students will develop civic
participation skills.

C) Planning and taking actionLearners
know how to plan for action based on their research and analysis of an
environmental issue. If appropriate, they take actions that are within the
scope of their rights and consistent with their abilities and
responsibilities as citizens.

·
Develop
plans for individual and collective action involving groups such as a small
group of classmates, a school club, a community organization, or a church.
Include clear reasons and goals for action. In planning, refer to their
knowledge of a range of citizen action strategies and the results of their
environmental issue investigations.

·
Develop
action plans based on an understanding of the complexity of the issue. Set
realistic goals and include measures of success consistent with their
abilities and the capacities of the groups involved.

·
Decide
whether their plan should be implemented immediately or at another time,
modified, or abandoned; and carry through with action when appropriate.

SPS4:12:6 Interpersonal and
Collaborative Skills

Skill 2.3:K Students will develop civic
participation skills.

D) Evaluating the results of actions—Learners
are able to evaluate the effects of their own actions and actions taken by
other individuals and groups.

·
Discuss
the intended and unintended effects of citizen actions on specific
environmental issues. Consider the apparent effects of citizen action on the
environment, the political situation, and the individuals involved.
Illustrate with examples such as a demonstration at a nuclear test facility,
a local watershed festival, or a citizen lobbying effort against proposed
environmental regulations.

·
Analyze
their own actions, evaluating apparent effects in terms of learners’ goals,
ethics, and broader societal goals. Develop a “lessons learned”
document or presentation.

·
Account
for some of the difficulties they encounter in evaluating the results of
their actions.

SPS4:12:4 Problem
Identification, Formulation and Solution

Skill 2.2:I Students will be able to make
informed decisions.

NAAEE
Guidelines

End of
Grade 12

NH Science
Curriculum Frameworks

End of
Grade 12

NH Social
Studies Curriculum Frameworks-End of Grade 12

Strand 4- Personal and Civic
Responsibility

 

 

A) Understanding
societal values and principles—
Learners know how to analyze the
influence of shared and conflicting societal values.

·
Identify
shared political values and principles that unite U.S. citizens and analyze
conflicting views about their meaning and application. For example, examine
conflicting views about how to protect general welfare and private property
rights in a specific land-use decision where a lawsuit has been filed
alleging a “taking” of private property rights by the government.

·
Analyze
how societal institutions, such as banks, corporations, nonprofit
organizations, lobbying groups, government agencies, and the courts, embody
and perpetuate certain societal values and principles.

·
Describe
and suggest ways that individuals can work to change how societal
institutions function and, consequently, to change their environmental
impacts.

None at this level.

Skill 2.3:J Students will develop personal
skills.

B) Recognizing
citizens’ rights and responsibilities­—
Learners
understand the importance of exercising the rights and
responsibilities of citizenship.

·
Evaluate
conflicts between individual rights and other societal interests such as a
healthy environment. Discuss when individuals’ civic obligations require them
to subordinate their personal interests or desires to the public good.

·
Explain
the importance and evaluate the usefulness of civic dispositions such as
trust, patience, self-discipline, respect, and open-mindedness to individuals
and to society.

·
Explain
the influence of citizen action and public opinion on particular policy
decisions that affect the environment.

·
Reflect
on the impact of citizen participation— particularly learners’ own—on public
concerns related to the environment and on the community.

None at this level.

Skill 2.3:J Students will develop personal
skills.

C) Recognizing efficacy—Learners
possess a realistic self-confidence in their effectiveness as citizens.

·
Evaluate
the extent to which individual and group action creates change, meets
individual needs, and promotes the common good.

·
Identify
ways in which learners, individually and collectively, are able to help
maintain environmental quality and resolve problems and issues. Provide
examples from the range of communities (e.g., family, club or group, school,
town, state, nation, world) in which learners see themselves as members.

LS3:11:1 Change

Skill 2.3:J Students will develop personal
skills.

D) Accepting personal responsibility—Learners
understand that their actions can have broad consequences and accept
responsibility for recognizing those effects and changing their actions when
necessary.

·
Evaluate
the effects of their actions (and the actions of the larger social groups of
which they are part) on the environment, other humans, and other living things.

·
Explain
ways in which the decisions of one generation create opportunities and impose
constraints for future generations. Illustrate this idea with examples from
the past, and incorporate it into their analyses of issues.

·
Evaluate
the importance of fulfilling personal responsibilities for themselves,
society, and the environment.

·
Demonstrate
a willingness to work individually and collectively toward the resolution of
environmental issues and to participate thoughtfully and effectively in
environmental decision-making.

ESS4:12:3 Local and Global
Environmental Issues

 

LS3:11:1 Change

Skill 2.3:J Students will develop personal
skills.

 

SS:CV:4: Rights and Responsibilities

Students will demonstrate an understanding of the rights and
responsibilities of citizenship, and the ability to apply their knowledge of
local, state and national government through the political process and
citizen involvement.

 

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