Grade 8

Crosswalk Analysis

NAAEE Guidelines  End of Grade 8

NH Science Curriculum
Frameworks-End of Grade 8

NH Social Studies Curriculum
Frameworks-End of Grade 8

Strand 1- Questioning,
Analysis and Interpretation Skills

 

 

A) Questioning—Learners are able to
develop, focus, and explain questions that help them learn about the
environment and do environmental investigations.

·
Identify environmental questions based on
personal experiences both in and outside school, newspaper and magazine
articles, television or radio news, or videos. Summarize an environmental
problem or situation to provide context for, or explain the origin of, a
particular question. Create visual presentations (such as maps, graphs, or
video tapes) and written and oral statements that describe their thinking
about the problem.

·
Pose clear questions and ideas to test
(hypotheses), reformulating them when necessary.

·
Clarify their own beliefs about the environment
and discuss how those beliefs are reflected in the questions they ask.

SPS1:8:1 Making Observations and Asking Questions

 

SPS1:8:2 Designing Scientific Investigations

 

SPS2:8:1 Nature of Science

 

SPS3:8:1 Collaboration in Scientific Endeavors

 

SPS3:8:2 Common Environmental Issues, Natural
Resources Management and Conservation

 

SPS4:8—all apply

Skill 2.2:H
Students will be able to present information in a variety of ways.

B) Designing
investigations—
Learners are able to design
environmental investigations to answer particular questions—often their own
questions.

·
Select types of inquiry appropriate to their
questions.

·
Define the scope of their inquiry, identifying
the main variables and phenomena to be studied.

·
Select appropriate systems of measurement and
observation.

·
Select tools that are appropriate for their
environmental investigations based on the question asked and the type of
information sought.

SPS1:8:1 Making Observations and Asking Questions

 

SPS1:8:2 Designing Scientific Investigations

 

SPS1:8:3 Conducting Scientific Investigations

 

SPS2:8:1 Nature of Science

 

SPS3:8:1 Collaboration in Scientific Endeavors

None at this level.

C) Collecting informationLearners
are able to locate and collect reliable information about the environment or
environmental topics using a variety of methods and sources.

·
Observe systematically, measure accurately, and
keep thorough and accurate records, which may include written notes and data
tables, sketches, and photographs.

·
Understand and use various systems of measurement
and derived measurements such as rates.

·
Assess, choose, and synthesize materials from
resources such as aerial photographs, topographic maps, and satellite images;
library and museum collections, historical documents, and eyewitness
accounts; computerized databases and spreadsheets; the internet; and
government records.

·
Collect firsthand information about their own
community using field study skills.

SPS1:8:1 Making Observations and Asking Questions

 

SPS1:8:3 Conducting Scientific Investigations

 

SPS2:8:1 Nature of Science

 

SPS3:8:1 Collaboration in Scientific Endeavors

 

SPS3:8:2 Common Environmental Issues, Natural
Resources Management and Conservation

 

SPS4:8—all apply

Skill 2.1:A
Students will be able to find social studies-related information.

 

Skill 2.1:C
Students will be able to find information.

 

Skill 2.1😀
Students will be able to carry out a variety of information-gathering
techniques.

 

Skill 2.2:F
Students will be able to clarify information.

D) Evaluating accuracy and reliabilityLearners
are able to judge the weaknesses and strengths of the information they are
using.

·
Identify and evaluate vague claims they hear on
television or through other media. For example, examine the credibility of
results of public opinion polling about environmental topics, considering
such factors as sampling methods, logical conclusions, and appropriate
analogies.

·
Identify factors that affect the credibility of
information, including assumptions and procedures used to create it; the
social, political, and economic context in which the information was created;
and potential bias due to omission, suppression, or invention of factual
information.

·
Examine
evidence, identify faulty reasoning, and apply other basic logic and
reasoning skills in evaluating information sources. Identify gaps in
information that indicate a need for further discovery or inquiry.

·
Evaluate
data and evidence for accuracy, relevance, significance, appropriateness, and
clarity.

SPS1:8:1 Making Observations and Asking Questions

 

SPS1:8:4 Representing and Understanding Results of
Investigations

 

SPS1:8:5 Evaluating Scientific Explanations

 

SPS4:8:3 Critical Thinking and Systems Thinking

 

SPS4:8:8 Accountability and Adaptability

Skill 2.1:A
Students will be able to find social studies-related information.

 

Skill 2.1:B
Students will be able to comprehend the wide range of social-studies related
materials by using skills.

 

Skill 2.2:G
Students will be able to interpret information.

 

Skill 2.2:I
Students will be able to make informed decisions.

E) Organizing informationLearners
are able to classify and order data, and to organize and display information
in ways that help analysis and interpretation.

·
Present environmental data in a variety of
formats including charts, tables, plots, graphs, maps, and flowcharts. For
example, chart stream flows, create a map of local businesses that require
air quality permits, or organize survey results into a table.

·
Explain why they chose specific ways of ordering
and displaying information. Consider factors such as the question being
answered, the type of information, and the purpose of the display.

·
Present environmental data in ways that
demonstrate possible relationships between sets of information such as
population census counts of a certain bird species and the prevalence of
certain tree species or habitat types.

SPS1:8:4 Representing and Understanding Results of
Investigations

 

SPS2:8:1 Nature of Science

 

SPS3:8:1 Collaboration in Scientific Endeavors

 

SPS3:8:2 Common Environmental Issues, Natural
Resources Management and Conservation

 

SPS4:8:2 Communication Skills

 

SPS4:8:3 Critical Thinking and Systems Thinking

 

SPS4:8:7 Self Direction

Skill 2.2:F
Students will be able to clarify information.

 

Skill 2.2:G
Students will be able to interpret information.

 

Skill 2.2:H
Students will be able to present information in a variety of ways.

F) Working with models and simulationsLearners
understand many of the uses and limitations of models.

·
Describe how models are used to think about
long-term processes such as population growth or processes that are difficult
to see such as bird migration or the movement of the planets in relationship
to the sun.

·
Use models to represent and investigate aspects
of the physical world such as weather and specific phenomena such as
hurricanes.

·
Manipulate mathematical and physical models using
a computer.

·
Evaluate models based on the question being
investigated. Account for variables such as the complexity of the model, its
scale, its ability to represent important features of the process being
modeled, and its reliability and accuracy.

·
Recognize limitations of models and simulations.
For example, describe a situation in which a model of an environmental
phenomenon is not useful.

SPS2:8:3 Models and Scale

Skill 2.2:G
Students will be able to interpret information.

 

Skill 2.2:H
Students will be able to present information in a variety of ways.

 

Skill 2.2:I
Students will be able to make informed decisions.

 

SS:GE:1: The World in Spatial Terms

Students will demonstrate
the ability to use maps, mental maps, globes and other graphic tools and
technologies to acquire, process, report and analyze geographic information.

G) Drawing
conclusions and developing explanations
Learners are able
to synthesize their observations and findings into coherent explanations.

·
Distinguish between description and explanation
and give examples of each based on their own environmental investigations.

·
Consider the possible relationships among two or
more variables.

·
Propose explanations based on what they observed
or learned through research, selecting which evidence to use and accounting
for discrepancies. Synthesize and interpret information from a range of
sources.

·
List strengths and weaknesses of proposed
explanations. Discuss how the proposed explanation could be rejected or its
reliability improved.

·
Use their proposed explanations to form new
questions and suggest new avenues of inquiry.

SPS1:8:1 Making Observations and Asking Questions

 

SPS1:8:4 Representing and Understanding Results of
Investigations

 

SPS1:8:5 Evaluating Scientific Explanations

 

SPS2:8:1 Nature of Science

 

SPS3:8:2 Common Environmental Issues, Natural
Resources Management and Conservation

 

SPS4:8:2 Communication Skills

 

SPS4:8:3 Critical Thinking and Systems Thinking

 

SPS4:8:4 Problem Identification, Formulation and
Solution

 

SPS4:8:6 Interpersonal and Collaborative Skills

Skill 2.2:G
Students will be able to interpret information.

 

Skill 2.2:I
Students will be able to make informed decisions.

 

NAAEE Guidelines-End of
Grade 8

NH Science Curriculum
Frameworks-End of Grade 8

NH Social Studies
Curriculum Frameworks-End of Grade 8

 

 

 

Strand 2- Knowledge of Environmental Processes and
Systems

 

 

Strand 2.1- The Earth as a Physical System

 

 

A) Processes
that shape the Earth—
Learners have a basic understanding of
most of the physical processes that shape the Earth. They are able to explore
the origin of differences in physical patterns.

·
Analyze physical patterns such as climate, areas
of geothermal activity, soil types, and arid regions, suggesting reasons for
these patterns. Explain these patterns in terms of abrupt forces (such as earthquakes
or major storms) and long- term processes (such as erosion and rock
formation), as well as those that are human-caused (such as suburban
development or agricultural practices).

·
Predict the consequences of specific physical
phenomena such as a hurricane in a coastal area or heavy grazing in an arid
region.

·
Relate physical processes and patterns (such as
climate, weather phenomena, and seasonal change) to the Earth/sun
relationship. For example, create a model that shows how seasonal change is
affected by the Earth/sun relationship.

ESS1:8:1 Atmosphere,
Climate and Weather

 

ESS1:8:5
Processes and Rates of Change

 

ESS1:8:7 Water

SS:GE:3: Physical Systems

Students will demonstrate
an understanding of the physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s
surface and the characteristics and spatial distribution of ecosystems.

 

SS:GE:5: Environment and Society

Students will demonstrate
an understanding of the connections and consequences of the interactions
between Earth’s physical and human systems.

B) Changes
in matter—
Learners understand the properties of
the substances that make up objects or materials found in the environment.

·
Describe a variety of chemical reactions and
offer examples from daily life and the local environment.

·
Explain properties of materials in terms such as
atomic and molecular structure or reactivity. For example, describe why
particular building materials have properties such as rigidity,
impermeability, or the ability to reflect or gather heat.

·
Explain an object’s characteristics based on its
composition and how it was formed. For example, describe the characteristics
of different types of rock and account for these characteristics based on
their constituent parts and the processes by which they were formed.

ESS1:8:6 Rock
Cycle

 

ESS1:8:7 Water

 

PS1:8:1 Composition

 

PS1:8:2 Properties

SS:GE:5: Environment and Society

Students will demonstrate
an understanding of the connections and consequences of the interactions
between Earth’s physical and human systems.

C) Energy—Learners
begin to grasp formal concepts related to energy by focusing on energy
transfer and transformations. They are able to make connections among
phenomena such as light, heat, magnetism, electricity, and the motion of
objects.

·
Trace the flow of energy in examples that
encompass several different transfers and transformations of energy. For
example, trace the path of energy in the creation and consumption of fossil
fuels.

·
Explain how solar energy contributes to the
movement of global air masses, the hydrological cycle and ocean currents.

·
Explain how the process of life is based on the
conversion, utilization, storage and transfer of energy. For example, create
a visual display that shows how plants or animals use energy, where that
energy comes from, and where it goes.

SPS2:8:2 Systems and Energy

 

SPS4:8:3 Critical Thinking and Systems Thinking

 

ESS2:8:2 Energy

 

LS2:8:2 Flow of Energy

 

PS2:8:2 Conservation

 

PS2:8:3 Energy

 

 

SS:GE:4: Human Systems

Students will demonstrate
an understanding of human migration; the complexity of cultural mosaics;
economic interdependence; human settlement patterns; and the forces of
cooperation and conflict among peoples.

 

SS:GE:5: Environment and Society

Students will demonstrate
an understanding of the connections and consequences of the interactions
between Earth’s physical and human systems.

Strand 2.2- The Living Environment

 

 

A) Organisms, populations, and communities—Learners
understand that biotic communities are made up of plants and animals that are
adapted to live in particular environments.

·
Define and give examples to illustrate the
concepts of species, population, community, and ecosystem. Trace and give
examples of connections among organisms at those levels of organization.

·
Link features of internal and external anatomy
with the ability of organisms to make or find food and reproduce in
particular environments.

·
Understand that some animals and plants have
adapted to extreme environmental conditions. Give examples of adaptations
that are behavioral (for example, the migration of Canada geese and other birds) and
physical (such as the physical structures that enable desert animals and
plants to exist on minimal amounts of water).

·
Describe how organisms differ in how they use
energy. For example, identify organisms that use energy quickly for growth
and metabolism, and therefore must replace it quickly (e.g., a hummingbird)
and others that use energy more slowly and therefore need to replace it less
frequently (e.g., a python). Predict the habitatneeds
of these different types of organisms.

SPS2:8:5 Form and Function

 

LS1:8:1 Classification

 

LS1:8:2 Living Things and Organization

 

LS1:8:3 Reproduction

 

LS2:8:2 Flow of Energy

SS:GE:4: Human Systems

Students will demonstrate
an understanding of human migration; the complexity of cultural mosaics;
economic interdependence; human settlement patterns; and the forces of
cooperation and conflict among peoples.

 

SS:GE:5: Environment and Society

Students will demonstrate
an understanding of the connections and consequences of the interactions
between Earth’s physical and human systems.

B) Heredity
and evolution—
Learners
have a basic understanding of the importance of genetic heritage.

·
Describe
some ways in which variation among individuals of the same species can
sometimes give certain individuals an advantage within a specific
environment.

·
Describe
in general terms the theory of natural selection for particular traits and
how that process can result in descendants that are quite different from
their ancestors.

·
Define
extinction, cite evidence of extinction, and identify some of its causes.

·
Discuss
the possible implications of permanent loss of a species and how it affects
interdependence within an ecosystem.

LS1:8:1 Classification

 

LS1:8:3 Reproduction

 

LS3:8:1 Change

 

LS3:8:2 Evidence of Evolution

 

LS3:8:3 Natural Selection

 

LS4:8:3 Human Identity

None at this level.

C) Systems and connections—Learners understand major kinds of
interactions among organisms or populations of organisms.

·
Describe and give examples of producer/consumer,
predator/prey, and parasite/host relationships.

·
Identify organisms that are scavengers or
decomposers. Describe the roles they play within particular systems focusing
on their relationship to other organisms and physical elements of the system.

·
Summarize how abiotic and biotic components in
combination influence the structure of an ecosystem. For example, create a
map for the local region that shows average temperature and rainfall
correlated with local forest, grassland or desert ecosystems. Or discuss the
process of soil formation in terms of the interaction of climate, geology,
and living organisms.

SPS2:8:2 Systems and Energy

 

SPS2:8:4 Patterns of Change

 

ESS1:8:1 Atmosphere,
Climate and Weather

 

ESS1:8:2 Composition
and Features

 

ESS1:8:5 Processes
and Rates of Change

 

ESS1:8:6 Rock
Cycle

 

ESS1:8:7 Water

 

LS1:8:2 Living Things and Organization

 

LS2:8:1 Environment

 

LS2:8:2 Flow of Energy

 

LS2:8:3 Recycling of Materials

SS:GE:3: Physical Systems

Students will demonstrate
an understanding of the physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s
surface and the characteristics and spatial distribution of ecosystems.

 

SS:GE:4: Human Systems

Students will demonstrate
an understanding of human migration; the complexity of cultural mosaics; economic
interdependence; human settlement patterns; and the forces of cooperation and
conflict among peoples.

D) Flow of
matter and energy—
Learners understand how energy and
matter flows among the abiotic and biotic components of the environment.

·
Trace the flow of energy through food webs that
identify relationships among organisms in natural systems.

·
Explain how matter is transferred among organisms
and between organisms and their environment in these food webs.

·
Describe how energy, which enters ecosystems as
sunlight, changes form and is transferred in the exchanges (production,
consumption, and decomposition) that comprise food webs.

SPS2:8:2 Systems and Energy

 

SPS2:8:4 Patterns of Change

 

ESS2:8:1 Earth,
Sun and Moon

 

ESS2:8:2 Energy

 

LS2:8:2 Flow of Energy

 

LS2:8:3 Recycling of Materials

None at this level.

Strand 2.3- Humans and Their Societies

 

 

A)
Individuals and groups—
Learners understand that how individuals
perceive the environment is influenced in part by individual traits and group
membership or affiliation.

·
Describe individual development and identity in
terms such as learning, perception, innate abilities, culture, social
influences, and experience. Interpret their own beliefs about the environment
using similar concepts.

·
Explain how group membership—and shared values,
beliefs, and assumptions—can influence individuals, impel different reactions
to physical and social environments and changes, and cause social change. For
example, describe how family, religion, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic
status, and other factors may influence individuals’ values and perceptions
about the environment and their communities.

·
Identify and critique instances of stereotyping
based on group affiliation. For example, discuss how people who are all
identified as “environmentalists” may have very different
perspectives from one another.

SPS3:8:2 Common Environmental Issues, Natural
Resources Management and Conservation

 

SPS4:8:6 Interpersonal and Collaborative Skills

 

SPS4:8:9 Social Responsibility

SS:GE:2: Places and Regions

Students will demonstrate
an understanding of the physical and human geographic features that define
places and regions as well as how culture and experience influence people’s
perceptions of places and regions.

 

SS:HI:5: Social/Cultural

Students will demonstrate
an understanding of the interaction of various social groups, including their
values, beliefs and practices, over time.

 

SS:WH:5: Social/Cultural

Students will demonstrate
their understanding of the diversity of values, beliefs and practices of
individuals and groups over time.

B) Culture—As
they become familiar with a wider range of cultures and subcultures, learners
gain an understanding of cultural perspectives on the environment and how the
environment may, in turn, influence culture.

·
Explain how the environment is perceived
differently by various cultures, and how these perspectives may influence
individuals’ perceptions of the environment. For example, based on stories
from other cultures, script and perform scenes about what is considered
beautiful, valuable, or frightening in the environment.

·
Explain how new technologies can change cultural
perceptions and social behavior. For example, discuss how snowmobiles have
changed subsistence lifestyles in Alaska,
or the impact of air conditioning on settlement in southern Florida.

·
Identify ways in which transportation and
communications technology helps, or has helped, spread cultural values and
behavior patterns.

None at this grade level.

SS:CV:3: The World and the United States’
Place In It

Students will demonstrate
an understanding of the relationship of the United States to other countries,
and the role of the United
States in world affairs.

 

SS:GE:2: Places and Regions

Students will demonstrate
an understanding of the physical and human geographic features that define
places and regions as well as how culture and experience influence people’s
perceptions of places and regions.

 

SS:GE:5: Environment and Society

Students will demonstrate
an understanding of the connections and consequences of the interactions
between Earth’s physical and human systems.

C) Political and economic systems—Learners
become more familiar with political and economic systems and how these
systems take the environment into consideration.

·
Differentiate among public and private goods and
services, using environment-related goods and services to illustrate. For
example, examine the values and functions of wetlands. Distinguish among
public goods, such as groundwater recharge, flood control, and wildlife habitat;
and private goods, such as their value for agricultural production or water
storage, or the value of draining the land for other uses. Discuss
difficulties encountered in drawing these distinctions.

·
Identify economic and political features of the
local community and state, and describe how environmental decisions can be
influenced by these economic and political systems and factors.

·
Identify ways in which governments and economic
systems work to protect the environment and distribute natural resources.
Give examples of laws, incentives, and penalties that affect people’s
behavior toward the environment and each other .

SPS3:8:2 Common Environmental Issues, Natural
Resources Management and Conservation

SS:CV:2: Structure and Function of United States
and New Hampshire
Government

Students will demonstrate
an understanding of major provisions of the United States and New Hampshire
Constitutions, and the organization and operation of government at all levels
including the legislative, executive, and judicial branches.

 

SS:CV:3: The World and the United States’
Place In It

Students will demonstrate
an understanding of the relationship of the United States to other countries,
and the role of the United
States in world affairs.

 

SS:HI:4: Economic Systems & Technology

Students will demonstrate
an understanding of the changing forms of production, distribution and
consumption of goods and services over time.

D) Global connections—Learners become familiar
with ways in which the world’s environmental, social, economic, cultural, and
political systems are linked.

·
Explain international trade in terms of uneven
distribution of resources.

·
Describe ways in which the global environment is
affected by individual and group actions, as well as by government policies
and actions having to do with energy use and other forms of consumption,
waste disposal, resource management, industry, and population.

·
Explain how an environmental change in one part
of the world can have consequences for other places. For example, develop a
map or another visual presentation that shows the effects of acid rain or
nuclear fallout in places distant from the source of the pollution.

·
Identify a variety of global links, including
transportation and communication systems, treaties, multi-national corporations,
and international organizations.

None at this grade level.

SS:CV:3: The World and the United States’
Place In It

Students will demonstrate
an understanding of the relationship of the United States to other countries,
and the role of the United
States in world affairs.

 

SS:EC:5: International Economics and Trade

Students will recognize the
importance of international trade and how economies are affected by it.

 

SS:GE:2: Places and Regions

Students will demonstrate
an understanding of the physical and human geographic features that define
places and regions as well as how culture and experience influence people’s
perceptions of places and regions.

 

SS:HI:4: Economic Systems & Technology

Students will demonstrate
an understanding of the changing forms of production, distribution and
consumption of goods and services over time.

E) Change and conflict—Learners understand that
human social systems change over time and that conflicts sometimes arise over
differing and changing viewpoints about the environment.

·
Describe patterns of change within and across
cultures, communities, and other groups. Consider the rapidity of change,
mechanisms that helped spread change, and what motivated change. For example,
discuss how and why wastewater treatment became a common practice in the United States.

·
Explain how change affects individuals and groups
differently and give examples of the trade-offs involved in decisions and
actions ranging from the individual to the societal levels. For example,
discuss how a decision about where to site a landfill, build a chemical
plant, or locate a new highway might affect different neighborhoods,
businesses, workers, people of varying socio-economic status, and others. Role play their reactions.

·
Describe and analyze examples of tensions between
individual rights and benefits and the societal good. Illustrate with
examples from the local community, possibly including disagreements over
zoning, controversial proposals to raise taxes to pay for the purchase of
open space or sewer system upgrades, or tradeoffs between commuting to work
individually in a car or taking public
transportation.

·
Identify some of the formal and informal ways
that groups (including governments) attempt to anticipate, avoid, or resolve
conflicts related to the environment.

SPS3:8:2 Common Environmental Issues, Natural
Resources Management and Conservation

Theme A: Conflict and
Cooperation

 

SS:CV:3: The World and the United States’
Place In It

Students will demonstrate
an understanding of the relationship of the United States to other countries,
and the role of the United
States in world affairs.

 

SS:CV:4: Rights and Responsibilities

Students will demonstrate
an understanding of the rights and responsibilities of citizenship, and the
ability to apply their knowledge of local, state, and national government
through the political process and citizen involvement.

 

SS:GE:2: Places and Regions

Students will demonstrate
an understanding of the physical and human geographic features that define
places and regions as well as how culture and experience influence people’s
perceptions of places and regions.

Strand 2.4- Environment and Society

 

 

A) Human/environment interactions—Learners
understand that human-caused changes have consequences for the immediate
environment as well as for other places and future times.

·
Describe intended and unintended environmental
and social consequences associated with the changing use of technologies.
Consider consequences that may be positive as well as negative. For example,
discuss particular irrigation methods, different ways of generating
electrical power, or the use of synthetic pesticides.

·
Explain how human-caused environmental changes
cause changes in other places. For example, discuss the effects of building a
dam on downstream plant and animal communities as well as on human
communities.

·
Describe the effects of a local environmental
restoration effort, such as wetlands creation. Predict the long-term
consequences of such efforts, or a particular restoration project.

ESS4:8:1 Design
Technology

 

ESS4:8:3 Local
and Global Environmental Issues

 

LS2:8:1 Environment

 

LS5:8:1 Design Technology

 

LS5:8:3 Social Issues (Local and Global); Medical
Technology; Biotechnology

SS:GE:5: Environment and Society

Students will demonstrate
an understanding of the connections and consequences of the interactions
between Earth’s physical and human systems.

 

SS:HI:4: Economic Systems & Technology

Students will demonstrate
an understanding of the changing forms of production, distribution and
consumption of goods and services over time.

 

SS:WH:2: Contacts, Exchanges & International
Relations

Students will demonstrate
their understanding of the interactions of peoples and governments over time.

 

SS:WH:4: Economic Systems & Technology

Students will demonstrate
their understanding of the changing forms of production, distribution and
consumption of goods and services over time.

B) Places—Learners begin to explore the meaning of
places both close to home and around the world.

·
Analyze physical and human characteristics of
places and make inferences about how and why these characteristics have
developed and changed over time. For example, use maps and satellite
photographs to examine how cities change in response to natural disasters
such as floods, hurricanes, or earthquakes. Identify ways in which personal
perceptions, culture, and technology influence people’s perceptions of
places. Discuss the importance of some places (such as Yellowstone National Park
or the Mississippi River) as cultural
symbols.

·
Identify regions based on different criteria such
as watershed boundaries, sales and service areas for different businesses, or
the area from which sports teams draw fans or symphony orchestras attract
audiences.

ESS4:8:1 Design
Technology

 

ESS4:8:2 Tools

 

ESS4:8:3 Local and
Global Environmental Issues

 

 

C) Resources—Learners understand that
uneven distribution of resources influences their use and perceived value.

·
Map and discuss distribution and consumption
patterns for specific resources, such as metals, fresh water, or certain
types of forests. Note resources that are being rapidly depleted.

·
Explain why certain resources (such as oil, coal,
or natural gas) are key to the development of human
societies, and identify resources that were critical to development at
different times in history.

·
Explain conflicts between individuals, states,
regions, or nations noting factors such as differing attitudes about the use
of specific resources and scarcity of natural resources. Illustrate with
local or regional examples such as conflicts over water rights and use of
habitat for local endangered species.

ESS4:8:2 Tools

 

ESS4:8:3 Local
and Global Environmental Issues

SS:EC:2: Basic Economic Concepts

Students will learn about
the pillars of a free market economy and the market mechanism.

D) Technology—Learners understand the
human ability to shape and control the environment as a function of the
capacities for creating knowledge and developing new technologies.

·
Discuss technologies in the context of larger
systems that have shaped the course of human history as well as human
relationships with the environment. Use illustrations from the agricultural,
industrial and transportation revolutions that have dramatically changed how
people live and use resources.

·
Analyze how the ability to develop and use
technology gives humans great influence over the environment and other living
things. Use examples from their region, such as the ability to construct
levees to protect areas from flooding or create wildlife refuges, build
machines that produce or reduce air or water pollution, or domesticate plants
or animals for food production.

·
Identify some of the important environmental and
social issues related to particular technological developments in fields such
as agriculture, manufacturing, and energy.

ESS4:8:1 Design
Technology

 

LS5:8:1 Design Technology

 

PS4:8:3 Social Issues (Local and Global); Energy,
Power and Transportation; Manufacturing

SS:GE:5: Environment and Society

Students will demonstrate
an understanding of the connections and consequences of the interactions
between Earth’s physical and human systems.

 

SS:HI:4: Economic Systems & Technology

Students will demonstrate
an understanding of the changing forms of production, distribution and
consumption of goods and services over time.

 

SS:WH:2: Contacts, Exchanges & International
Relations

Students will demonstrate
their understanding of the interactions of peoples and governments over time.

 

SS:WH:4: Economic Systems & Technology

Students will demonstrate
their understanding of the changing forms of production, distribution and
consumption of goods and services over time.

E) Environmental issues—Learners are familiar with
a range of environmental issues at scales that range from local to national
to global. They understand that people in other places around the world
experience environmental issues similar to the ones they are concerned about
locally.

·
Identify other places, either contemporary or
historical, experiencing issues similar to those in the learner’s community
or region.

·
Explain how issues arise because of conflicting
points of view about a specific proposal, event, or condition in the
environment. For example, discuss conflicting perspectives about past and
present proposals to build large-scale dams such as the Three Gorges project
in China,
the Hetch-Hetchy dam in the U.S., or a
similar project in the learner’s region.

·
Discuss how the disagreements
at the heart of environmental issues makes
them difficult to resolve.
Consider the role of understanding, creativity, or compromise in finding
solutions.

SPS3:8:2 Common Environmental Issues, Natural
Resources Management and Conservation

 

SPS3:8:3 Science and Technology, Technological
Design and Application

 

SPS4:8:3 Critical Thinking and Systems Thinking

 

ESS4:8:3 Local
and Global Environmental Issues

 

LS5:8:3 Social Issues (Local and Global); Medical Technology; Biotechnology

 

PS4:8:3 Social Issues (Local and Global); Energy,
Power and Transportation; Manufacturing

SS:GE:5: Environment and Society

Students will demonstrate
an understanding of the connections and consequences of the interactions
between Earth’s physical and human systems.

 

SS:WH:4: Economic Systems & Technology

Students will demonstrate
their understanding of the changing forms of production, distribution and
consumption of goods and services over time.

NAAEE Guidelines-End of
Grade 8

NH Science Curriculum
Frameworks-End of Grade 8

NH Social Studies Curriculum
Frameworks-End of Grade 8

Strand 3- Skills for Understanding and Addressing
Environmental Issues

 

 

Strand 3.1- Skills for Analyzing and Investigating
Environmental Issues

 

 

A) Identifying and investigating issuesLearners
are able to use primary and secondary sources of information, and apply
growing research and analytical skills, to investigate environmental issues,
beginning in their own community.

·
Clearly articulate and define environmental
issues. For example, describe the history and origins of the issue, actions
that have been taken to address the issue, the apparent effects of these
actions, and the current situation.

·
Identify key individuals and groups involved,
their viewpoints, and the types of action they support. Describe areas of
conflict and agreement.

·
Investigate the issue using secondary sources and
original research where needed.

·
Examine how others have analyzed and understood
the issue, identifying their approaches and the assumptions behind them.

·
Compare the issue with similar issues from other
places and times.

SPS3:8:2 Common Environmental Issues, Natural
Resources Management and Conservation

 

SPS4:8—all apply

Skill 2.1:B
Students will be able to comprehend the wide range of social studies-related
materials by using skills.

 

Skill 2.2:G
Students will be able to interpret information.

B) Sorting out the consequences of issuesLearners
are able to apply their knowledge of ecological and human processes and
systems to identify the consequences of specific environmental issues.

·
Describe the effects of human actions on specific
elements, systems, and processes of the environment.

·
Analyze issues by looking at trade-offs that have
been made. For example, consider where various human activities (such as
landfills, highways, chemical factories, or hazardous waste incinerators) are
located and their effects on different places and different segments of the
population.

·
Speculate about the effects of a proposed state
or local environmental regulation. For example, consider effects on different
sectors of the economy, neighborhoods, public health, particular plant and
animal species and communities, and overall environmental quality.

·
Predict the consequences of inaction or failure
to resolve particular issues.

SPS3:8:2 Common Environmental Issues, Natural
Resources Management and Conservation

 

SPS4:8—all apply

Skill 2.2:G
Students will be able to interpret information.

 

SS:GE:3: Physical Systems

Students will demonstrate
an understanding of the physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s
surface and the characteristics and spatial distribution of ecosystems.

C) Identifying and evaluating alternative solutions and
courses of action
Learners are able to identify and develop
action strategies for addressing particular issues.

·
Identify different proposals for resolving an
environmental issue. Recognize and explain the perspectives on the issue that are embedded in those views.

·
Explain why various strategies may be effective
in different situations. Consider their likely effects on society and the
environment.

·
Independently and in groups, develop original
strategies to address issues.

·
Discern similarities and differences in problem
situations which might affect their ability to apply strategies that were
successful in other places and times.

SPS3:8:1 Collaboration in Scientific Endeavors

 

SPS3:8:2 Common Environmental Issues, Natural
Resources Management and Conservation

 

SPS4:8—all apply

Skill 2.2:I
Students will be able to make informed decisions.

 

Skill 2.3:J
Students will develop personal skills.

 

Skill 2.3:K
Students will develop civic participation skills.

D) Working with flexibility, creativity, and opennessLearners
are able to consider the assumptions and interpretations that influence the
conclusions they and others draw about environmental issues.

·
Explain how the interplay of ideas and
perspectives strengthens the process of inquiry and the societal ability to
address issues.

·
Receive
questions and alternative explanations that others offer in discussions as
well as in readings.

·
Explain why it is not always possible to select
one correct explanation or a single best approach to addressing an issue.

SPS3:8:1 Collaboration in Scientific Endeavors

 

SPS3:8:2 Common Environmental Issues, Natural
Resources Management and Conservation

 

SPS4:8—all apply

Skill 2.3:J
Students will develop personal skills.

 

Skill 2.3:K
Students will develop civic participation skills.

Strand 3.2- Decision-Making and Citizenship Skills

 

 

A) Forming and evaluating personal viewsLearners
are able to identify, justify, and clarify their views on environmental
issues and alternative ways to address them.

·
Discuss personal perspectives with classmates,
remaining open to new ideas and information.

·
Justify their views based on information from a
variety of sources, and clear reasoning.

·
Discuss their own beliefs and values regarding
the environment and relate their personal view of environmental issues to
these.

·
Identify
ways in which others’ views correspond or differ with their own views.

SPS4:8—all apply

Skill 2.3:J
Students will develop personal skills.

 

B) Evaluating the need for citizen actionLearners
are able to evaluate whether they believe action is needed in particular
situations, and decide whether they should be involved.

·
Discuss whether action is warranted. Account for
factors such as the scale of the problem; legal, social, economic, and
ecological consequences; and alternatives to citizen action.

·
Identify different forms of action that citizens
can take in the economic, political, and legal spheres, as well as actions
aimed at directly improving or maintaining some part of the environment or
persuading others to take action.

·
Speculate about the likely effects of specific
actions on society and the environment, and the likelihood these actions will
resolve a specific environmental issue.

·
Point out advantages and disadvantages of their
personal involvement, considering factors such as their own skills,
resources, knowledge, and commitment.

SPS4:8—all apply

Skill 2.3:K
Students will develop civic participation skills.

 

SS:CV:4: Rights and Responsibilities

Students will demonstrate
an understanding of the rights and responsibilities of citizenship, and the
ability to apply their knowledge of local, state, and national government
through the political process and citizen involvement.

C) Planning and taking actionAs
learners begin to see themselves as citizens taking active roles in their
communities, they are able to plan for and engage in citizen action at levels
appropriate to their maturity and preparation.

·
Develop action plans they can carry out
individually, in small groups, or with a class, club, or larger organization.
Include clear reasons and goals for action. Base these plans on knowledge of
a range of citizen action strategies and the results of their environmental
issue investigations.

·
Set realistic goals for action and include
measures of success consistent with learners’ abilities and an understanding
of the complexity of the issue.

·
Decide whether their plan should be implemented
immediately or at another time, changed, or abandoned; and carry through with
action when appropriate.

SPS4:8—all apply

Skill 2.3:K
Students will develop civic participation skills.

 

SS:CV:4: Rights and Responsibilities

Students will demonstrate
an understanding of the rights and responsibilities of citizenship, and the
ability to apply their knowledge of local, state, and national government
through the political process and citizen involvement.

D)
Evaluating the results of actions
Learners are able to
analyze the effects of their own actions and actions taken by other
individuals and groups.

·
Analyze the effects of decisions, policies, and
actions taken by individuals and groups on a particular issue.

·
Analyze their own actions, explaining apparent
effects and discussing them in light of students’ goals and reasons for
acting.

·
Describe some of the reasons why analyzing the
results of actions may be difficult, including the scale of the issue, the
time required to see effects, and the influence of other actions and factors.

SPS4:8—all apply

Skill 2.2:I
Students will be able to make informed decisions.

 

Skill 2.3:K
Students will develop civic participation skills.

NAAEE Guidelines-End of
Grade 8

NH Science Curriculum
Frameworks-End of Grade 8

NH Social Studies Curriculum
Frameworks-End of Grade 8

Strand 4- Personal and Civic Responsibility

 

 

A)
Understanding societal values and principles
Learners
understand that societal values can be both a unifying and a divisive force.

·
Identify some of the shared political values and
principles that unite American society, and explain their importance.

·
Discuss conflicting views about the meaning and
application of shared values in specific issues. For example, explore
conflicting views about the idea that one person’s rights end where they
infringe on another’s. Use a specific context such as proposed sports stadium
or whether to permit an industrial facility or housing development that is
likely to pollute a stream.

·
Identify ways in which advocates appeal to values
such as individual freedoms, property rights, the public good, economic
well-being, and patriotism. For example, analyze speeches and writings on
specific environmental issues.

·
Evaluate the principle of stewardship as a shared
societal value. For example, compare conceptions of stewardship contained in
writings of John Muir, Gifford Pinchot, and Aldo Leopold with their own
understanding.

SPS4:8:9 Social Responsibility

SS:CV:4: Rights and Responsibilities

Students will demonstrate
an understanding of the rights and responsibilities of citizenship, and the
ability to apply their knowledge of local, state, and national government
through the political process and citizen involvement.

 

SS:HI:5: Social/Cultural

Students will demonstrate
an understanding of the interaction of various social groups, including their
values, beliefs and practices, over time.

 

SS:WH:5: Social/Cultural

Students will demonstrate
their understanding of the diversity of values, beliefs and practices of
individuals and groups over time.

B) Recognizing citizens’ rights and responsibilitiesLearners
understand the rights and responsibilities of citizenship and their
importance in promoting the resolution of environmental issues.

·
Identify rights and responsibilities associated
with citizenship, including personal and civic responsibilities.

·
Describe ways in which commonly accepted rights
and responsibilities of citizenship motivate people to help resolve
environmental issues. Consider rights and responsibilities such as acquiring,
using and selling property; the right to vote; freedom of speech and
assembly; accepting responsibility for the consequences of one’s actions;
obeying the law; and respecting the rights and interests of others.

SPS4:8:9 Social Responsibility

SS:CV:4: Rights and Responsibilities

Students will demonstrate
an understanding of the rights and responsibilities of citizenship, and the ability
to apply their knowledge of local, state, and national government through the
political process and citizen involvement.

C)
Recognizing efficacy
Learners possess a realistic
self-confidence in their effectiveness as citizens.

·
Explain the ways in which citizen action and
public opinion influence environmental policy decisions.

·
Describe how individuals and groups act within
society to create change, meet individual needs and promote the common good.
Illustrate with examples from environmental issues.

·
Describe ways in which their actions have made a
difference. Use examples that begin in the classroom and the home, and extend
beyond to encompass the broader communities in which students begin to see
possibilities for action.

SPS4:8—all apply

Skill 2.3:J
Students will develop personal skills.

 

Skill 2.3:K
Students will develop civic participation skills.

 

SS:CV:4: Rights and Responsibilities

Students will demonstrate
an understanding of the rights and responsibilities of citizenship, and the
ability to apply their knowledge of local, state, and national government
through the political process and citizen involvement.

D) Accepting personal responsibilityLearners
understand that their actions can have broad consequences and that they are
responsible for those consequences.

·
Analyze some of the effects that their actions
(and the actions of their families, social groups, and communities) have on
the environment, other humans, and other living beings.

·
Describe actions in terms of their effects that
reach into the future.

·
Describe their personal responsibilities,
comparing their view of their responsibilities with commonly accepted
societal views.

·
Identify ways in which they feel responsible for
helping resolve environmental issues within their community.

SPS4:8—all apply

Skill 2.2:I
Students will be able to make informed decisions.

 

Skill 2.3:K
Students will develop civic participation skills.

 

SS:CV:4: Rights and Responsibilities

Students will demonstrate
an understanding of the rights and responsibilities of citizenship, and the
ability to apply their knowledge of local, state, and national government
through the political process and citizen involvement.

 

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